Polio has been found in sewage samples in Hackney and other London boroughs, leading to a city-wide vaccine rollout.

Vaccine-derived poliovirus has been detected in sewage in Barnet, Brent, Camden, Enfield, Hackney, Haringey, Islington and Waltham Forest.

There have been no confirmed cases yet but the decision has been made that a targeted inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) booster dose should be offered to all children aged one to nine.

Across London, childhood vaccination uptake is lower than the rest of the country and Hackney has the lowest figures, with just 60-69% of children receiving the vaccine by 12 months.

Following initial findings at Beckton sewage treatment works earlier this year, 116 type 2 poliovirus (PV2) isolates were identified in 19 sewage London samples collected between February 8 and July 5.

Most are vaccine-like virus and only a few have sufficient mutations to be classified as vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV2). VDPV2 is of greater concern as it behaves more like naturally occurring "wild" polio and may, on rare occasions, lead to cases of paralysis in unvaccinated individuals.

Dr Vanessa Saliba, consultant epidemiologist at UKHSA said: "No cases of polio have been reported and for the majority of the population, who are fully vaccinated, the risk is low.

"But we know the areas in London where the poliovirus is being transmitted have some of the lowest vaccination rates. This is why the virus is spreading in these communities and puts those residents not fully vaccinated at greater risk.

"Polio is a serious infection that can cause paralysis but nationally the overall risk is considered low because most people are protected by vaccination. The last case of polio in the UK was in 1984, but decades ago before we introduced the polio vaccination programme around 8,000 people would develop paralysis every year."

The NHS will be contacting parents of eligible children aged one to nine.